Complications Associated With Cold Sores
The initial contraction of herpes simplex can cause more severe symptoms and complications, as your body hasnt built up a defense to the virus yet. Complications are rare, but can occur, especially in young children. Call your doctor immediately if youre experiencing any of the following symptoms:
- high or persistent fever
- red, irritated eyes with or without discharge
Complications are more likely to occur in people who have eczema or a condition that weakens their immune system, such as cancer or AIDS. If you do have any of these conditions, contact your doctor if you think youve contracted the herpes simplex virus.
Theres no cure for cold sores, but some people with the herpes simplex virus rarely have outbreaks. When cold sores do develop, there are several ways to treat them.
Facts About Cold Sores
Cold sores usually appear as a single watery blister on the lip or mouth, or several blisters that consolidate into one.
They are usually caused by herpes simplex virus-1 . HSV-1 is the cousin of HSV-2, which is primarily associated with genital herpes.
However, HSV-1 can also lead to genital herpes during oral sex and HSV-2 can sometimes lead to cold sores.
HSV-1 is very common. About 67% of the world’s population under age 50 has HSV-1.
Cold sores affect roughly 3 of every 1,000 people each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Of these, 33% will experience subsequent attacks triggered by stress, fever, and other causes.
Once you have HSV-1 it doesn’t go away. If you develop a cold sore, the virus can spread more easily.
Cold sores are typically spread through saliva and direct contact. You can get them through kissing or sharing lip balm with someone who has a cold sore.
Cold sores can be painful and may take up to 14 days before active healing begins.
Definitions And Statistical Methods
Viral shedding was defined as isolation of HSV from mucosal sites. The viral shedding was categorised as either symptomatic , or subclinical . HSV infection was categorised using clinical and laboratory findings. Patients were defined as having first episodes of genital herpes if they had newly acquired HSV infection with a compatible clinical syndrome and viral isolation but no antibodies to that HSV type. Recurrent infection was defined as reactivation of previously acquired HSV infection.
For two group comparisons, person level continuous variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney two sample test, and person level categorical variables were compared with odds ratios , with confidence intervals, and p values. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analyses comparing those who shed HSV-2 orally with those who did not. Shedding rates were calculated as the ratio of number of positive days to the number of days with culture results at a particular site. Comparisons between oral HSV-2 shedding and genital HSV-2 shedding used paired testing number of people were compared using McNemars test, and rates of shedding were compared by testing per person proportion of positive days using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Oral HSV-2 shedding and oral HSV-1 shedding were compared in the same way.
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Fact #: The Virus Is Commonly Passed Through Kissing
When it comes to HSV-1 transmission rates, it is believed that most people contract the virus from kissing. This includes lip kissing or deep kissing which involves the exchange of saliva. Most adults who have the virus caught it while they were kids. It is possible that they got it from someone who didnt know they were infected and innocently passed it on. This can easily happen because the virus goes dormant and can stay in the body for years without causing a breakout.
Who Might Get Genital Herpes
Genital herpes affects teens and adults of all genders and races. It can spread if you have multiple sexual partners and dont use condoms.
Women are more at risk. Delicate vaginal tissue can tear, making it easier for the infection to get in. Black women are especially vulnerable. An estimated 1 in 2 African-American women between the ages of 14 and 49 is infected with HSV-2, the virus that causes genital herpes.
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How To Stop Cold Sores From Spreading
You know how annoying a cold sore can be, so do your best not to share it with anyone else. Take these sensible precautions with your cold sore and increase the chances of keeping the infection to yourself.
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How Painful Is Herpes Simplex
Some people experience very mild genital herpes symptoms or no symptoms at all. Frequently, people infected with the virus dont even know they have it. However, when it causes symptoms, it can be described as extremely painful. This is especially true for the first outbreak, which is often the worst. Outbreaks are described as aches or pains in or around the genital area or burning, pain, or difficulty urinating. Some people experience discharge from the or .
Oral herpes lesions usually cause tingling and burning just prior to the breakout of the blisters. The blisters themselves can also be painful.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Genital Herpes
Some people never develop symptoms. They dont know they have the herpes virus that causes genital herpes. They may unknowingly infect others. You can have the herpes virus for years and not have symptoms, so its hard to know when or from whom you got it.
When symptoms occur, theyre usually worse during the first outbreak or flare-up . Symptoms typically appear within two to 20 days after infection. Active symptoms may last up to four weeks.
You may experience:
Stis Can Be Spread Through Saliva
Any STI in the throat or mouth can be transmitted to the genitals through saliva, explains Dr. Gersh. In other words, if your partner has an active herpes lesion for example, using their spit to make things slick could leave you with genital herpes.
This scenario happens more than you might thinkand its the most common way genital herpes is contracted, she says. Even if you dont see a cold sore on or around their mouth, the virus can still be transmissible. Herpes can present with blisters or sores, but it can also present asymptomatically, she explains.
Herpes isnt the only oral STI you could contract. Gonorrhea, chlamydia, HPV, syphilis, and trichomoniasis can also all be transmitted to the genitals through saliva, adds Dr. Gersh. And like herpes, these infections may not have any symptoms.
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Transmission Of Epstein Barrvirus
Epstein Barr is the etiological agent responsible forinfectious mononucleosis. Infectious mononucleosis is commonly known asthe âkissing diseaseâ because it, like all Epstein Barr diseases, istransmitted primarily via saliva. Epstein Barr Virus is not likelyto be spread by aerosol or fomites. Because of this, there is littlereason to isolate patients with active EBV infection. EBV can also betransmitted by blood transfusion. In industrialized countries, there is afirst wave of primary infections before adolescence. A second wave occurswith the onset of social activity associated with adolescence and youngadulthood. Primary infection among adolescents accounts for most cases ofinfectious mononucleosis. Most of the population is EBV-seropositive byadulthood. It should also be noted that most transmission of EBV is dueto asymptomatic viral shedding from healthy EBV-seropositiveindividuals.
EBV has also been implicated as an etiological agent inseveral human malignancies including B cell lymphomas, nasopharyngealcarcinoma, and Burkittâs lymphoma. Cofactors are thought to play a largerole in the development of these diseases.
Myth #: A Blood Test Is The Best Way To Know If You Have Herpes
Blood tests are not always accurate and testing for herpes can be tricky. It can take two weeks to six months after being exposed to herpes before it is detected in the blood. To make matters more complicated, if you are low risk for herpes and asymptomatic, it increases your risk of a false positive result. Because of this, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends against routine testing for herpes unless you or your partner have symptoms. The most accurate test is when you are able to take a swab sample from a new herpes lesion, but often times the diagnosis is made by a clinician based on your history and report of symptoms.
Because the blood test can be expensive and inaccurate, it is not typically included in a sexually transmitted disease evaluation unless you ask your provider for it specifically.
In short, if you dont have symptoms, you dont necessarily need a blood test. If you do experience an outbreak, a skin swab not a blood test is your best bet for confirmation.
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Hepatitis B And Pregnancy
Hepatitis B can be transmitted from a birthing parent to a newborn infant. This is because the newborn is exposed to blood and bodily fluids during delivery.
In fact, 90% of mothers with an acute hepatitis B infection and 10% to 20% of mothers with chronic hepatitis B will transmit the virus to their newborn, estimates the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
For this reason, birthing parents are routinely screened for hepatitis B during each pregnancy.
Additionally, the hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin are both administered to infants with an HBV-positive birthing parent within of birth to prevent infection.
According to the
- people with hepatitis C infection
- men who have sex with men
- people with multiple sexual partners
- people who are seeking treatment for a sexually transmitted infections
- people with current or recent injection drug use
- family members or sexual partners of those with hepatitis B
- people with chronic liver disease
- people traveling to areas with high rates of hepatitis B
- people on maintenance dialysis
- people who are incarcerated
The hepatitis B vaccine is usually administered in three shots, given 1 month and 6 months after the first dose. Another recently approved vaccine is completed in two doses spaced 1 month apart.
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Can I Get Genital Herpes On My Hands From Fingering Someone During An Outbreak
Someone asked us:
Can I get genital herpes on my hand from fingering an infected individual who was not having a breakout
Its important to avoid touching herpes sores or having any sexual contact while you or your partner have a herpes outbreak. Thats because herpes is most contagious when sores are open and wet.
If an outbreak isnt present , herpes can still shed and spread to others. Always use condoms, finger cots, or dental dams when there isnt an outbreak to lower your chances of spreading herpes during sex.
Planned Parenthood delivers vital reproductive health care, sex education, and information to millions of people worldwide. Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. is a registered 501 nonprofit under EIN 13-1644147. Donations are tax-deductible to the fullest extent allowable under the law.
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How Do You Know If You Have Hepatitis B
Signs and symptoms can vary, in particular by the age of the individual. Many individuals may not show symptoms . When symptoms develop, they include fever, joint pain, abdominal pain, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, clay-coloured bowel movements, or jaundice.
Most infections are asymptomatic or mild. Occasionally, people with serious cases of hepatitis B require hospitalization. A very small proportion of these patients develop a critical form of the disease called fulminant hepatitis B. This condition results from a sudden breakdown of liver function.
Genital Herpes And Pregnancy
It is important to avoid contracting herpes during pregnancy. A first episode during pregnancy can create a greater risk of transmission to a newborn.
Fortunately, it is rare for women with genital herpes to infect their babies. If you know that you have genital herpes before becoming pregnant, your physician will monitor your condition throughout your pregnancy. If you have an active outbreak at the time of delivery, a C-section may be recommended. Depending on individual diagnosis, though, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists endorses suppressive therapy to reduce the frequency of C-section.
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How Do People Get Genital Herpes
Infections are transmitted through contact with HSV in herpes lesions, mucosal surfaces, genital secretions, or oral secretions. 5 HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be shed from normal-appearing oral or genital mucosa or skin. 7,8 Generally, a person can only get HSV-2 infection during genital contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection. However, receiving oral sex from a person with an oral HSV-1 infection can result in getting a genital HSV-1 infection. 4 Transmission commonly occurs from contact with an infected partner who does not have visible lesions and who may not know that he or she is infected. 7 In persons with asymptomatic HSV-2 infections, genital HSV shedding occurs on 10.2% of days, compared to 20.1% of days among those with symptomatic infections. 8
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Valacyclovir Tablets
Kidney failure and nervous system problems are not common, but can be serious in some patients taking valacyclovir tablets. Nervous system problems include aggressive behavior, unsteady movement, shaky movements, confusion, speech problems, hallucinations , seizures and coma.
Kidney failure and nervous system problems have happened in patients who already have kidney disease and in elderly patients whose kidneys do not work well due to age. Always tell your healthcare provider if you have kidney problems before taking valacyclovir tablets.
Common side effects of valacyclovir tablets in adults include headache, nausea, stomach pain, vomiting and dizziness. Side effects in HIV-infected adults include headache, tiredness and rash. These side effects usually are mild and do not cause patients to stop taking valacyclovir tablets.
Other less common side effects in adults include painful periods in women, joint pain, depression, low blood cell counts and changes in tests that measure how well the liver and kidneys work. The most common side effect seen in children < 18 years of age was headache.
Talk to your healthcare provider if you develop any side effects that concern you. These are not all the side effects of valacyclovir tablets. For more information ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
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Hepatitis C: What Happens
About 25% of people who get hepatitis C defeat the virus after a short-term infection. The rest will carry the virus in their body for the long term. Chronic hepatitis C can cause very serious complications, including liver failure and liver cancer. There are effective treatments for the virus, though.
Where Is The Hepatitis B Virus Found And How Is It Transmitted
Blood is the major source of the hepatitis B virus in the workplace. It can also be found in other tissues and body fluids, but in much lower concentrations. The risk of transmission varies according to the specific source. The virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days and still be able to cause infection.
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Myth #: Herpes Can Affect Your Fertility
Herpes has no impact on fertility, says Hawkins however, people may be confused because there can be an issue with herpes when it comes to pregnancy. If someone is pregnant and gets an outbreak close to when shes going to deliver a baby, that could be problematic, she says. In very rare cases, the outbreak can be transmitted to the baby during birth this is called neonatal herpes and the condition is potentially deadly. In such a situation, doctors may recommend a cesarean to protect the baby from infection.
How Is Genital Herpes Diagnosed
HSV nucleic acid amplification tests are the most sensitive and highly specific tests available for diagnosing herpes. However, in some settings viral culture is the only test available. The sensitivity of viral culture can be low, especially among people who have recurrent or healing lesions. Because viral shedding is intermittent, it is possible for someone to have a genital herpes infection even though it was not detected by NAAT or culture. 11
Type-specific virologic tests can be used for diagnosing genital herpes when a person has recurrent symptoms or lesion without a confirmatory NAAT, culture result, or has a partner with genital herpes. Both virologic tests and type-specific serologic tests should be available in clinical settings serving patients with, or at risk for, sexually transmitted infections. 11
Given performance limitations with commercially available type-specific serologic tests , a confirmatory test with a second method should be performed before test interpretation. If confirmatory tests are unavailable, patients should be counseled about the limitations of available testing before serologic testing. Healthcare providers should also be aware that false-positive results occur. In instances of suspected recent acquisition, serologic testing within 12 weeks after acquisition may be associated with false negative test results. 11
Providers are strongly encouraged to look at CDCs STI Treatment Guidelines for further diagnostic considerations.
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