Wednesday, May 15, 2024

How Common Is Herpes 2

What Are The Symptoms Of Herpes Simplex

Herpes (oral & genital) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Many people with the infection never experience any herpes symptoms. If you do notice symptoms, youll experience them differently depending on whether youre having your first herpes outbreak or a repeat outbreak. Recurring symptoms are usually milder than the first outbreak. Symptoms dont last as long with later outbreaks. Some people may only have one or two outbreaks during their lifetime. Others may have as many as four or five outbreaks a year.

People who do have herpes symptoms may experience:

  • Cold sores around their lips, mouth or tongue. They may look crusty or like fluid-filled blisters.
  • Tingling, itching or burning.
  • Pain while urinating.

What Are The Complications Of Genital Herpes

Genital herpes may cause painful genital ulcers that can be severe and persistent in persons with suppressed immune systems, such as HIV-infected persons. 5 Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 can also cause rare but serious complications such as aseptic meningitis . 5 Development of extragenital lesions may occur during the course of infection. 5

There are also potential complications for a pregnant woman and her newborn child. See How does herpes infection affect a pregnant woman and her baby? below for information about this.

How Can Herpes Be Prevented

Correct and consistent use of latex condoms can reduce, but not eliminate, the risk of transmitting or acquiring genital herpes because herpes virus shedding can occur in areas that are not covered by a condom.25,26

The surest way to avoid transmission of STDs, including genital herpes, is to abstain from sexual contact, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested for STDs and is known to be uninfected.

Persons with herpes should abstain from sexual activity with partners when herpes lesions or other symptoms of herpes are present. It is important to know that even if a person does not have any symptoms, he or she can still infect sex partners. Sex partners of infected persons should be advised that they may become infected and they should use condoms to reduce the risk. Sex partners can seek testing to determine if they are infected with HSV.

Daily treatment with valacyclovir decreases the rate of HSV-2 transmission in discordant, heterosexual couples in which the source partner has a history of genital HSV-2 infection. 27 Such couples should be encouraged to consider suppressive antiviral therapy as part of a strategy to prevent transmission, in addition to consistent condom use and avoidance of sexual activity during recurrences.

Read Also: When Is It Safe To Have Sex After Herpes Outbreak

What Are The Symptoms Of Herpes Ii

Typically, the first signs of herpes II is a cluster of blister-like lesions in the genital area which spread and merge, break and crust over within four to 15 days. The fluid from these itching, painful sores is highly infectious. Other frequent symptoms are painful urination, urethral or vaginal discharge and swollen lymph nodes. The first exposure or primary episode consists of headache, fever, chills and muscular weakness. Recurrent episodes are less severe and are limited to the affected area.

There Are 2 Herpes Simplex Viruses That Can Cause Infection

HSV : Type1 and Type2
  • One causes most genital herpes.
  • The other virus can also cause genital herpes but more often causes blisters of the mouth and lips.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that about 1 out of 6 people ages 14 to 49have genital herpes.

Women are more easily infected with herpes than men.

Read Also: Can You Get Aids From Herpes

Why You Should Go To A Sexual Health Clinic

You can see a GP, but they’ll probably refer you to a sexual health clinic if they think you might have genital herpes.

Sexual health clinics treat problems with the genitals and urine system.

Many sexual health clinics offer a walk-in service, where you do not need an appointment.

They’ll often get test results quicker than GP practices and you do not have to pay a prescription fee for treatment.

How Does Herpes Simplex Spread

Herpes spreads through close contact with a person who has the infection. The virus can be found in skin and saliva. If you have herpes simplex, you are most likely to pass the virus to another person when you have sores. But you can infect someone else even if you have no symptoms. Healthcare providers call this asymptomatic viral shedding.

People may get HSV-1 through

  • Touching a persons skin near the mouth.
  • Sharing food utensils, lip balm or razors.
  • If you receive oral sex from someone who has a cold sore, it may spread a herpes infection to your genitals.

People may get HSV-2 through

  • Oral sex with someone whos infected.
  • Skin-to-skin contact without ejaculation.
  • Touching open sores, including while breastfeeding.
  • Childbirth by a mother or gestational parent who has an active infection.

You cant get genital herpes from objects like toilet seats. But you could pass genital herpes through shared sex toys.

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Frequently Asked Questionsexpand All

People with HSV-2 infection have an increased risk of getting human immunodeficiency virus if they have sex with an HIV-infected partner. Taking suppressive therapy does not decrease this risk.

  • How can the herpes virus affect pregnancy?

    If a woman is pregnant and infected with HSV, it can be passed to the fetus during birth while passing through the womans infected birth canal. This is most likely to occur if a woman first becomes infected with HSV during pregnancy and in a woman who has her first outbreak late in pregnancy. But it also can occur during a recurrent outbreak in a woman who was infected before pregnancy, although the risk is much lower.

    If you have sores or warning signs of an outbreak at the time of delivery, you may need to have a cesarean delivery to reduce chance of infection. The decision depends on many factors, including where the sores are on your body and whether the fetus would come into contact with them during delivery.

  • Can I still breastfeed my baby if I have the herpes virus?

    Yes, in most cases. The herpes virus cannot be passed to a baby through breast milk. However, the baby could get infected by touching a sore on your body. Make sure any sores that the baby could come into contact with are covered when you hold your baby or while breastfeeding. Wash your hands with soap and water before and after feeding your baby. If you have sores on your breast, you should not breastfeed your baby from that breast.

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    What Can I Do If I Have Herpes Simplex 2

    Herpes Simplex 1 & 2: Symptoms, Transmission and Treatment

    Many people who find out they have herpes feel depressed knowing they’ll always have the virus and can give it to others. But you arent alone. Herpes is one of the most common STIs, both in the U.S. and worldwide. If you have herpes, you should:

    • Learn all you can about it. Information will help you to manage your disease and feel better about yourself.
    • Talk about your illness with your doctor.

    If you have herpes, you can still:

    • Have sex if you use a condom or dental dam , and you tell your partner about your illness. Some couples, who have sexual relations only with each other, may choose not to use condoms even though one partner has herpes. Because each situation is different, you should ask your doctor if this is the right choice for you in your relationship.
    • Have children. People with herpes can still give birth to healthy babies. If you have herpes and plan to have children, discuss your illness with your healthcare provider.

    If you have herpes, you should also get checked for HIV and other STIs .

    Read Also: Can You Get Genital Herpes From Drinking After Someone

    So Cold Sores Are Only Caused By Hsv

    Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 can cause cold sores on the mouth and face.

    Although its more common for HSV-1 to cause cold sores, it isnt impossible for HSV-2 to cause them, too.

    Cold sores arent the same thing as canker sores or mouth ulcers. They each have different causes and two entirely different presentations.

    Cold sores:

    • are caused by the herpes simplex virus
    • usually develop near the outside of the mouth, such as below your nostrils or on your lips
    • cause redness and fluid-filled blisters
    • usually appear in groups
    • eventually break and ooze, forming a crust-like scab
    • may take 2 to 4 weeks to completely heal

    Canker sores:

    • may be caused by food or chemical sensitivities, dietary deficiencies, minor injury, or stress
    • may develop anywhere inside your mouth, such as at the base of your gum line, inside your lip, or under your tongue
    • are shaped like a circle or oval
    • are typically yellow or white with a red border
    • may appear solo or in groups
    • usually take 1 to 2 weeks to completely heal

    HSV-1 is spread through direct contact with the virus, which can be present in or around cold sores, in oral secretions , and in genital secretions .

    Some of the ways it can be transmitted include:

    • kissing someone on the mouth
    • sharing eating utensils or cups
    • sharing lip balm
    • performing oral sex

    The herpes virus usually affects the area where it first made contact with the body.

    Some of the ways HSV-2 can be transmitted include:

    How Do You Treat Herpes

    Theres no cure for herpes, but prescription medications can ease symptoms, end outbreaks sooner, and lower the chances of passing the virus to other people.

    You can also help ease the pain caused by herpes outbreaks by taking a warm bath, wearing loose clothing and putting an ice pack on the sores.

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    Whats The Difference Between Genital Herpes And Oral Herpes

    Because there are 2 different kinds of herpes simplex viruses that can live on many body parts, lots of people are confused about what to call these infections. But its actually pretty simple:

    • When you get either HSV-1 or HSV-2 on or around your genitals , its called genital herpes.

    • When you get either HSV-1 or HSV-2 in or around your lips, mouth, and throat, its called oral herpes. Oral herpes sores are sometimes called cold sores or fever blisters.

    HSV-1 usually causes oral herpes, and HSV-2 usually causes genital herpes each strain prefers to live on its favorite area. But its totally possible for both types of herpes simplex to infect either area. For example, you can get HSV-1 on your genitals if someone with a cold sore on their lips gives you oral sex. And you can get HSV-2 in your mouth if you give oral sex to someone with HSV-2 on their genitals.

    What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor

    Herpes simplex infections

    You may want to ask your healthcare provider:

    • What is the best treatment for me?
    • What happens if I dont treat a cold sore?
    • What are the side effects of antiviral medications?
    • How can I reduce the risk of future outbreaks?
    • Whats the best way to prevent getting another STI?
    • How can I protect my partner from getting genital herpes?
    • Should I lookout for signs of complications?

    Recommended Reading: Why Am I Having More Frequent Herpes Outbreaks

    Should You Be Tested For The Herpes Virus

    The CDC does not recommend herpes testing for people who have no symptoms. They point out that diagnosing genital herpes in someone lacking any symptoms does not lead to them making changes in their sexual choices. They are no more likely to use condoms or to refrain from having sex than if they hadnt been tested.

    Also, false-positive test results can happen. A false positive is a test result saying you have herpes when actually you do not.

    Even if you have no symptoms of herpes or of any other sexually transmitted disease, though, you should talk frankly with your doctor or another healthcare provider about your sexual activities to see if you should be screened for STDs, including herpes.

    There are some situations where herpes blood tests can be useful, says the CDC:

    • If you have genital symptoms that could be related to herpes
    • If you now have, or have had, a sex partner with genital herpes
    • If you want a complete STD exam, especially if you have multiple sex partners

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    Note: Not all genital herpes statistics are consistent from study to study. Most say 25% of American women have the virus, and 20% of American males. Other studies show slightly lower numbers. The studies with slightly lower numbers refer to people from 14 to 49, while the higher number studies are based on all people over 12. As populations age, there is a higher incidence of STIs.

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    Also Check: How Many People Have Genital Herpes

    Are These The Only Herpes Viruses

    There are actually several other subtypes of herpes viruses that are from the same family as HSV-1 and HSV-2. This family is known as Herpesviridae.

    Alternatively, HSV-1 and HSV-2 are also known as human herpesvirus 1 and human herpesvirus 2 , respectively.

    The other human herpesviruses include:

    • Human herpesvirus 3 : Also known as the varicella zoster virus, this virus causes chickenpox lesions.
    • Human herpesvirus 4 : Also known as the Epstein-Barr virus, this virus causes infectious mononucleosis.
    • Human herpesvirus 5 : Also known as the cytomegalovirus, this virus causes symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches.
    • Human herpesvirus 6 : This virus can cause a serious illness in infants known as sixth disease, which is also called roseola infantum. The virus causes a high fever and distinctive rash.
    • Human herpesvirus 7 : This virus is similar to HHV-6 and can cause some cases of roseola.
    • Human herpesvirus 8 : This virus can contribute to a serious illness known as Kaposi sarcoma, which can lead to connective tissue cancer.

    Many of these subtypes are contracted in childhood.

    Can Genital Herpes Come Back

    Types of Herpes

    Yes. Genital herpes symptoms can come and go, but the virus stays inside your body even after all signs of the infection have gone away. The virus becomes “active” from time to time, leading to an outbreak. Some people have outbreaks only once or twice. Other people may have four or five outbreaks within a year. Over time, the outbreaks usually happen less often and are less severe.

    Experts do not know what causes the virus to become active. Some women say the virus comes back when they are sick, under stress, out in the sun, or during their period.

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    Useful Methods Include Testing An Actual Lesion

    Keep in mind that thereâs no such thing as âsafeâ sex, only safer sex, which means using protection and being open and honest with your partner. âIt can definitely happen,â Friedman says of the chances of transmitting the virus to a partner without a visible outbreak. âIts called asymptotic shedding there are studies showing that the rates of transmission of HSV-2 are the same for symptomatic and asymptomatic.â He adds that this is why using protection during sexual contact is so important, regardless of what blood tests say. Unfortunately, you can never ensure your risk of transmission will be zero, whether or not you know you have herpes, but using a condom or dental dam will get you closer to it.

    Like Hutcherson, Friedman also doesnât recommend blood tests for herpes in the absence of symptoms. âThe tests that are useful involve sampling the actual blister or cold sore,â he says, which can involve smearing scrapes of skin cells from the sore onto a slide, targeting the infected cells. As with some of the blood tests, though, this sampling test still wonât tell you what type of herpes virus is present. A viral culture, on the other hand, will tell you which virus you have, though it takes some time to come back. âDirect fluorescent antibody is by far the best,â Friedman says, âas you can get a result in a matter of hours which can be as useful as a culture.â Not all hospitals have access to this method, however.

    What Do I Do If I Find Out I Have Herpes

    Its normal to have lots of different feelings after you find out that you have herpes. You might feel mad, embarrassed, ashamed, or upset at first. But youll probably feel a lot better as time goes by, and you see that having herpes doesnt have to be a big deal. People with herpes have relationships and live totally normal lives. There are treatments for herpes, and theres a lot you can do to make sure you dont give herpes to anyone you have sex with.

    Millions and millions of people have herpes youre definitely not alone. Most people get at least one STD in their lifetime, and having herpes or another STD is nothing to feel ashamed of or embarrassed about. It doesnt mean youre dirty or a bad person it means youre a normal human who got a really common infection. The reality is that herpes can happen to anybody who has ever been kissed on the lips or had sex thats a LOT of people.

    Herpes isnt deadly and it usually doesnt cause any serious health problems. While herpes outbreaks can be annoying and painful, the first flare-up is usually the worst. For many people, outbreaks happen less over time and may eventually stop completely. Even though the virus hangs around in your body for life, it doesnt mean youll be getting sores all the time.

    And tell anyone you have sex with that you have herpes. Its not the easiest conversation, but its an important one. Here are some tips:

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