Mechanism Of Action And Pharmacokinetics
The bioavailability of penciclovir following oraladministration of famciclovir is about 70%. Peak concentrations of drug afterintravenous administration of 10 mg/kg are approximately six-fold higher thanthose attained after oral doses of 250 mg. Food delays absorption but does notaffect the final plasma drug concentration. Following oral administration,little or no famciclovir is detected in plasma or urine. The plasma half-life ofpenciclovir is about 2.5 hours, and almost three-quarters is recovered unchangedin the urine. Measurable penciclovir concentrations are not detectable in plasmaor urine following topical administration of penciclovir cream. A 12-hour dosinginterval is recommended for those with creatinine clearances between 30 and 50ml/min per 1.73 m2, and a 24-hour interval for those with creatinineclearances less than 30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 .
Herpes Simplex Virus : How To Prevent Manage And Cure Herpes
Herpes simplex is a type of virus belonging to the family of herpesviridae. Herpesviruses or herpesviridae is a type of DNA viruses. This large family of viruses infects animals and humans. The family is named after herpein. It is a Greek word meaning to creep. The word has been chosen in reference to the nature of the viruses to cause a latent infection. The viruses also cause recurring infections.
Herpes Vaccine Difficulties During Development
As per studies, a major difficulty in developing a herpes vaccine is connected to the way alpha-herpesviruses including HSV have evolved a complex mechanism to evade immune responses that could destroy them. The HSV first infects the mucosal tissues of the mouth or genitourinary tract. Then it works its way to the tips of the sensory nerves that transmit signals that are responsible for sensations such as touch and pain. The virus then breaks into the nerve cell with the help of a molecular switch. It uses the molecules to travel along nerve fibers and into the nucleus of the sensory neuron. These infected neurons become essentially a hiding spot for the virus while the infection is cleared by the immune response.
The breakthrough discovery that the HerpaGreens supplement is based on, was made in a study conducted in 2014 by a team led by Thomas Christie, a chief scientist of molecular genetics at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The team discovered that a drug called Tranylcypromine or TCP could block a protein called LSD-1. This is the exact protein that helps the herpes virus to hide from the immune system.
Recommended Reading: Can You Prevent Herpes Outbreaks
The Science Behind The Hunt For A Herpes Cure
Wilder: I read that you started thinking up a possible cure for herpes around 10 years ago.
Jerome: Well, that was when I first became aware of what today has become an area of research that we call gene editing. A lot of your readers may have heard of a particular type of gene editing protein called CRISPR. Its made a lot of news over the past two or three years including the lay press, not just the scientific literature. But, actually, CRISPR is only one type of protein for gene editing. There are other types, as well.
When I first became aware of that, I realized that gene editing proteins have the unique capability of very specifically looking for the DNAthe stuff of lifeof, in this case, a virus, and ignore everything else. I realized that gene editing proteins could actually find an infectionwhether it was HIV, herpes, or hepatitis Bdestroy that DNA, and leave the rest of the body alone.
Remember that these sleeping viruses that I mentioned are long-lived forms of DNA within the body. So if we could destroy the viruses in a very selective manner, we might have a possibility to think about cure.
Wilder: As you mentioned, the current drugs that are prescribed dont get rid of the latent virus. What is it about this virus that makes it so challenging to eliminate?
Jerome: Once the virus goes to sleep in the nerve cells, it coils itself up into a little circle. In a lot of ways, that little circle looks a lot like our own DNA.
How Do I Know If I Have Genital Herpes
Most people with genital herpes have no symptoms or have very mild symptoms. Mild symptoms may go unnoticed or be mistaken for other skin conditions like a pimple or ingrown hair. Because of this, most people do not know they have a herpes infection.
Herpes sores usually appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals, rectum or mouth. This is known as having an outbreak. The blisters break and leave painful sores that may take a week or more to heal. Flu-like symptoms also may occur during the first outbreak.
People who experience an initial outbreak of herpes can have repeated outbreaks, especially if they have HSV-2. However, repeat outbreaks are usually shorter and less severe than the first outbreak. Although genital herpes is a lifelong infection, the number of outbreaks may decrease over time.
Ask a healthcare provider to examine you if:
- You notice any symptoms or
- Your partner has an STD or symptoms of an STD.
STD symptoms can include an unusual sore, a smelly genital discharge, burning when peeing, or bleeding between periods .
Recommended Reading: Can Herpes Go Away Without Treatment
How Can I Prevent Herpes Outbreaks
If you have lots of herpes outbreaks, your doctor may tell you to take medicine every day this is called suppressive therapy. It can help prevent future herpes outbreaks, and lower your chances of giving herpes to your partners.
Whether or not you take medicine to treat herpes, taking care of yourself by eating healthy foods, getting enough sleep, and avoiding stress might help keep future outbreaks from popping up.
No one knows for sure what triggers genital herpes outbreaks. Other infections, surgery, sex, your period, skin irritations, and stress may cause outbreaks. Sunburns, injuries to your lips, or other infections can cause oral herpes flare-ups. Try to avoid getting sunburned if you have oral herpes.
Genital herpes outbreaks usually happen less often and become shorter and weaker after a few years whether or not you get treated.
Read Also: Herpes Outbreak Lasts How Long
What Does Genital Herpes Look Like
While some people with genital herpes will never have any symptoms, other people can develop symptoms within a few weeks of being infected.
Often, before the lesions appear, patients describe a prodrome, characterized by a tingling or burning sensation in the area where the lesions will develop that can be noticed during urination, along with itching or discomfort in the genital area.
You can also have the following symptoms:
- Blisters on the mouth or lips
- Fever, headache or pain in the joints
- Trouble urinating
The symptoms of genital herpes often go away and come back as recurring outbreaks. For most people, the first outbreak is the worst, and can last from two to three weeks. Future flare-ups are often less severe and do not last as long. Still, some people shed the virus regularly. The following triggers can make outbreaks more likely to occur:
- Viral or bacterial infections
- Menstrual periods
Recurrent genital herpes is most common in the first year after the initial infection and decreases as time goes on.
In many cases, anti-herpes medicine can help patients. When a person experiences a prodrome and suspects a recurrence is going to happen, they begin taking anti-herpes medications that lessen symptoms and shorten the time of the outbreak.
Don’t Miss: Can You Get Hiv From Herpes
Slicing And Dicing On A Molecular Level: Meganuclease And Crispr
Wilder: The article you published with your colleagues discusses the cutting enzymeits called meganuclease?
Jerome: Thats right.
Wilder: What exactly is meganuclease? Has it been used in any other kind of research, or is it something your team is pioneering?
Jerome: Meganucleases are essentially a fancy name for the molecular scissors that we use to locate the virus. They recognize a specific type of DNAin this case, 20 letters of DNA.The letters have to be in the perfect order the perfect combination. If the meganuclease sees the 20 letters in exactly the right order, it will make a cut in the DNA. Thats what we use to destroy the herpes.
Meganucleases have been around a very long time they actually evolved in yeast. Weve come to appreciate their biology over the last 20 years or so, and theyve been used for gene editing purposes for over a decade. Thats why we got into this.
Part of the reason you dont hear about meganucleases now is that, to some degree, theyve been sort of replaced by the CRISPR system. One of the things that we deal with, with any type of molecular scissorswhether its CRISPR or the meganucleases: You have to change it so that it will recognize the 20 letters in the right order.
The proteins that evolve naturally in yeast dont have anything to do with herpes. So we need to change the letters that theyre looking for. For a meganuclease, its quite a difficult process that can take months. For CRISPR, you can actually do that overnight.
Home Remedies For Herpes
Home remedies for herpes focus on alleviating the discomfort associated with outbreaks. Popular natural treatments for herpes include:
- Taking painkillers like acetaminophen and ibuprofen
- Essential oils like lemon balm
- Warm sitz baths
- Applying petroleum jelly to the affected area
- Avoiding wearing tight clothing that covers the affected area
- Washing hands thoroughly, especially after touching the affected area
- Refraining from sexual activity until the symptoms have cleared up
- Applying pain-relieving creams or lotions like lidocaine
- Applying an ice pack wrapped in a towel to the affected area
Also Check: How Contagious Is Herpes 1
Is Genital Herpes Infection Related To Hiv
Herpes and HIV are caused by different viruses. But patients infected with these viruses are more likely to transmit either disease to their sexual partners. Patients with herpes are more vulnerable to HIV infection. People newly diagnosed with herpes should be tested for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections.
Patients who are infected with both herpes and HIV also may have a higher concentration of HIV viruses in their body because of the interaction between the herpes virus and the HIV virus. When HIV damages a persons immune system, the person may be more likely to shed herpes simplex virus asymptomatically.
Is Genital Herpes Related To Shingles
Shingles, also called herpes zoster, is caused by the varicella zoster virus , which causes chickenpox earlier in life. The natural history of varicella zoster infection is similar to genital herpes infection in that VZV also becomes latent in the sensory nerve roots. Later in life the virus may exit, causing shingles.
Recurrences in shingles cause blister lesions in a single area of skin called a dermatome. Shingles is not a sexually transmitted infection and is independent from genital herpes.
Read Also: How Can You Contract Herpes
Treatment For Genital Herpes
There is no medication to cure your body of the herpes virus. Treatment is aimed at easing symptoms, reducing the frequency of recurrences and reducing transmission.
Symptoms can be improved by:
- ice packs to the affected area
- pain-relieving medication such as paracetamol
- antiviral medication such as acyclovir, famciclovir and valaciclovir. These can reduce the severity of an episode if taken early enough . Topical antivirals usually used for cold sores on the lips or face are not suitable for use on the genitals.
Why You Should Go To A Sexual Health Clinic
You can see a GP, but theyll probably refer you to a sexual health clinic if they think you might have genital herpes.
Sexual health clinics treat problems with the genitals and urine system.
Many sexual health clinics offer a walk-in service, where you do not need an appointment.
Theyll often get test results quicker than GP practices and you do not have to pay a prescription fee for treatment.
Read Also: Can You Transmit Herpes Without Blisters
Don’t Miss: Rubbing Alcohol On Herpes Sores
What Can I Do If I Have Herpes Simplex 2
Many people who find out they have herpes feel depressed knowing they’ll always have the virus and can give it to others. But you arent alone. Herpes is one of the most common STIs, both in the U.S. and worldwide. If you have herpes, you should:
- Learn all you can about it. Information will help you to manage your disease and feel better about yourself.
- Talk about your illness with your doctor.
If you have herpes, you can still:
- Have sex if you use a condom or dental dam , and you tell your partner about your illness. Some couples, who have sexual relations only with each other, may choose not to use condoms even though one partner has herpes. Because each situation is different, you should ask your doctor if this is the right choice for you in your relationship.
- Have children. People with herpes can still give birth to healthy babies. If you have herpes and plan to have children, discuss your illness with your healthcare provider.
If you have herpes, you should also get checked for HIV and other STIs .
If I Get A Cold Sore Does It Mean That I Have Herpes 1
There are a number of reasons that you could have sores on your mouth. Sometimes you get a mouth ulcer from eating too much salty food. Getting a cold sore is a completely normal side effect of a normal run-of-the-mill cold. Just because a pesky cold sore pops up on your mouth doesnt necessarily mean that you have HSV 1. However, it could be an indicator. If you notice that you are getting sores on your mouth often even though you dont have any cold symptoms, its a good idea to head to your doctor for a blood test. This is the only way that youll know for sure whether or not you have the herpes virus in your body.
Dont Miss: How Do You Get Rid Of Mouth Herpes
Recommended Reading: What Is Herpes Zoster Infection
What’s Involved In Herpes Testing
If there are blisters or sores, a healthcare provider may gently swab the area to take a fluid sample and test it. If there are no sores, but you are concerned you may have been exposed, a blood test may done. Herpes tests are not normally recommended unless you have symptoms.
Support Fred Hutch Research
The Jerome Labâs herpes research thus far involves only HSV-1, but the scientists are now working on ways to extend their success to HSV-2. The first step will be to repeat their experiments using HSV-2 in guinea pigs, which, unlike mice, experience natural reactivations of herpes virus infections, just as humans do.
Recommended Reading: Which Doctor To Consult For Herpes
Diagnosis For Herpes Simplex Virus
Your physician can diagnose herpes after performing physical exams and administering certain tests. These tests include:
- A viral culture that examines a tissue sample
- A polymerase chain reaction test that examines blood, sore tissue, or spinal fluid for the presence and type of herpes
- A blood test that checks for the presence of herpes antibodies
How Is Herpes Simplex Diagnosed
Healthcare providers may diagnose herpes simplex based on how the sores look. Your provider may take a sample from the sore. Laboratory analysis of the sample can confirm or rule out the herpes virus.
If you dont have sores, your healthcare provider can use a blood test to check for HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibody, a marker showing youve been exposed to the virus. The blood test doesnt show an active infection . But it informs your provider whether youve been exposed to the herpes virus in the past. If this is your first infection, you may not test positive for herpes if there hasnt been enough time for your body to develop antibodies. The HSV-1and HSV-2 antibody test may be repeated in eight to 12 weeks.
Also Check: Can You Give Blood With Herpes
How Do You Get Genital Herpes
Genital herpes is a type of sexually transmitted disease caused mostly by HSV-2. Although HSV-1 can cause herpes rash in the genital area, it is less frequent compared with HSV-2. HSV-1 spreads by skin-to-skin contact, whereas HSV-2 spreads by sexual contact. Genital herpes rash is present on or around the genitals . When rash is in or on around the lips, mouth and throat, it is called oral herpes.
To Use Buccal Acyclovir Follow These Steps:
If the delayed-release buccal tablet comes off within the first 6 hours of application, reapply the same tablet. If it still will not stick, then apply a new tablet. If you accidentally swallow the tablet within the first 6 hours of application, drink a glass of water and place a new tablet on your gum. If the tablet falls off or is swallowed 6 or more hours after application, do not apply a new tablet until your next regular time.
Don’t Miss: Over The Counter For Herpes