Identification Of Cases And Controls
In order to validate the accuracy of diagnosing HZ, we performed separate chart reviewing of 110 patients with the coding of ICD-9 053.X in a single center of National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch. A hundred of the 110 patients were confirmed to have HZ reactivation by the description of typical blisters distributed over dermatomes or typical post-herpetic neuralgia, photography, or the prescription of antiviral agents. The validated positive predictive value to HZ using ICD-9 was 90%.
What Causes A Uti
You may also have a higher risk of contracting a UTI by:
- Having a new sexual partner or having recent sexual activity, because sexual activity can cause bacteria to get pushed towards and into the urethra.
- Wearing tight-fitting clothing or underwear that isnt breathable.
- Using a diaphragm or spermicides for birth control.
- Urinating through a catheter.
- Being pregnant.
- Having a blockage of the urinary tract may occur with kidney stones or an enlarged prostate.
- Being post-menopausal
- Having a weakened immune system, as with diabetes or AIDS.
You can reduce your risk of contracting a UTI by:
Can Herpes Affect Organs
The herpes simplex virus type 1 , which usually causes cold sores, can sometimes cause eye infections. If these infections are treated, no complications should occur. However, the NHS estimate that around 1 in 4 of these eye infections can cause certain complications, these include :
- Scarring of the cornea
One of the best ways of lowering your risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection is by regularly screening your sexual health. This can be done with your local doctor or from the comfort of your own home with an at-home lab test.
LetsGetCheckeds at-home Herpes Test can detect herpes simplex antibodies for either HSV-1 or HSV-2. Online results will be available within 5 days and our dedicated medical team will be there to offer a helping hand should you have any questions.
You should also consider getting tested if:
- You used a needle or syringe to inject drugs into your body that someone with herpes has already used
- You become sexually active
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Increasing Worsening Or Changing Symptoms
If any of your symptoms increase, worsen or change from the normal UTI symptoms, it might be an STD instead. If symptoms start to include ones like discharge or smell, its far more likely to be one of the most common STDs instead.
For any repeated urinary tract infections that appear to keep coming back, see your doctor: There are many things that can cause repeated UTIs. The same is true for any symptoms that can point to more than just an STD: Again, see your doctor.
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of An Std
The signs and symptoms of STD dont show up during the early stages and the infected person can be walking around with STD for several without evening knowing about it. Usually, the signs appear in the second week since the contraction of the disease. The most common symptoms of STDs are
- Abnormal vaginal/penile discharge
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Shingles Vaccination What You Should Know:
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends shingles vaccine for people 60 years of age and older. This is a one-time vaccination to prevent shingles. There is no maximum age for getting the shingles vaccine.
Anyone 60 years of age or older should get the shingles vaccine, regardless of whether they recall having had chickenpox or not. Studies show that more than 99% of Americans ages 40 and older have had chickenpox, even if they dont remember getting the disease.
Your risk for getting shingles begins to rise around age 50. However, shingles vaccine is only recommended for persons age 60 and older because the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine have only been studied in this age group.
Even if you have had shingles, you can still receive the shingles vaccine to help prevent future occurrences of the disease. There is no specific time that you must wait after having shingles before receiving the shingles vaccine. The decision on when to get vaccinated should be made with your healthcare provider. Generally, a person should make sure that the shingles rash has disappeared before getting vaccinated.
Herpes And Newborn Infants
Herpes infection in a newborn can cause a range of symptoms, including skin rash, fevers, mouth sores, and eye infections. If left untreated, neonatal herpes is a very serious and even life-threatening condition. Neonatal herpes can spread to the brain and central nervous system, causing encephalitis and meningitis. It also can lead to intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, and death. Herpes can also spread to internal organs, such as the liver and lungs.
Infants infected with herpes are treated with acyclovir, an antiviral drug. They usually receive several weeks of intravenous acyclovir treatment, often followed by several months of oral acyclovir. It is important to treat babies quickly, before the infection spreads to the brain and other organs.
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What Is A Urinary Tract Infection
A urinary tract infection UTI for short is an extremely common infection of one or more parts of the urinary tract, which consists of the urethra, the bladder, the ureters, and the kidneys.
While the body has systems in place to help keep bacteria from entering, there are times when germs get into the urethra. In many cases, bacteria dont get any further and are cleansed during urination. However, sometimes bacteria manage to proliferate in the urethra or make their way further into the urinary tract, leading to infection. Most urinary tract infections are bladder infections, but UTIs can impact the kidneys too, which is a more serious condition.
So, with that in mind, how could genital herpes lead to a UTI?
Herpes Myths Vs Facts
Herpes Myth: Only certain sorts of people get herpes.
Fact about herpes: No, it is very common and anyone who has ever had sex can get genital herpes. Itâs not about being clean, dirty, good or bad itâs about being normal and sexually active.
Herpes Myth: Herpes isnât that common, and I am unlikely to get it.
Fact about herpes: Herpes is very common and may be caused by both herpes simplex type 1 and herpes simplex type 2 . HSV-1 causes âcold soresâ on the mouth, and up to 80% of the population has this virus. However, it may also be transmitted to the genitals through oral-genital sex and about 40% of genital herpes is caused by HSV-1. Up to 22% of sexually active adults have genital herpes caused by HSV-2. Most people with herpes will not have symptoms and therefore will not be aware they have it. 75% of people who have genital herpes get it from partners who are entirely unaware that they have it themselves.
Herpes Myth: Herpes âcold soresâ on the mouth are not the same as genital herpes.
Fact about herpes: Cold sores on the mouth or face are caused by HSV-1 and are commonly transmitted to the genitals through oral-to-genital sex. Up to 40% of genital herpes is caused by HSV-1.
Herpes Myth: Herpes can only affect the genital area.
Herpes Myth: People always know if they have genital herpes.
Fact about herpes: No, 80% of those with genital herpes do not know they have it, as they may have no or very mild symptoms.
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Sex Affects Womens Kidney Infection Risk
Frequent Intercourse, New Partners Among Risk Factors for Women Under 50
Jan. 5, 2005 A young womans sex life may influence her risk of kidney infection.
New research shows that women younger than 50 who have sex at least three times per week, take a new partner, or recently used spermicides have a higher risk of kidney infections.
Diabetes, urinary incontinence, and a history of a urinary tract infection are also important, according to a study in the Jan. 4 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine. The findings could help more women avoid kidney infections.
Kidney infections are common. Every year, they send more than a quarter of a million Americans to doctors offices and 200,000 people to hospitals.
Most of those patients are women. Its rare for women who are otherwise healthy to be hospitalized for kidney infections. Instead, they usually get treatment with antibiotics.
Until now, little was known about kidney infections in younger women. Closing that knowledge gap was the goal of Delia Scholes, PhD, and colleagues. Scholes is a senior researcher with the Center for Health Studies at Group Health Cooperative, a Seattle-based health plan.
Several kidney infection risk factors stood out:
Its likely that infections can travel up to the kidneys from lower parts of the urinary tract, such as the bladder. So preventing infections of the bladder, which have many of the same risk factors, may help avoid kidney infections, say the researchers.
Abnormal Vaginal Discharge Or Bleeding
If you have changes in your vaginal discharge, talk with your doctor. Some vaginal discharge is normal throughout the menstrual cycle. However, it shouldnt be strangely colored or smell bad.
These can be symptoms of an STI. For example, discharge that occurs due to trichomoniasis is often green, frothy, and foul smelling. Gonorrhea discharge may be yellow and tinged with blood.
If you have bleeding between periods combined with discharge, make an appointment with your doctor. These symptoms can also be a sign of cancer.
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Valtrex And The Kidneys
Over time, the cumulative effects of taking Valtrex can also damage the kidneys. In tests, Valtrex was shown to cause acute kidney failure in certain patients. Those who experienced these Valtrex side effects to the kidneys:
- had previously existing kidney conditions
- were elderly without previous kidney conditions or
- also taking other medications that affect the kidneys.
How To Use Valtrex
This medication works best when started at the first sign of an outbreak, as directed by your doctor. It may not work as well if you delay treatment. For shingles or chickenpox, start taking valacyclovir at the first symptom or as soon as possible after the rash appears. For cold sores or genital herpes, start taking this medication at the first sign or as soon as you feel tingling, itching, or burning.
Valacyclovir works best when the amount of medicine in your body is kept at a constant level. Take this drug at evenly spaced intervals. To help you remember, take it at the same time each day.
Continue to take this medication until the full prescribed amount is finished. Do not change your dose, skip any doses, or stop this medication early without your doctor’s approval.
Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.
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Treatment Of An Initial Outbreak
The first outbreak of genital herpes is usually much worse than recurrent outbreaks. Symptoms tend to be more severe and to last longer. Your provider will prescribe one of the three antiviral medications, which you will take for 7 to 10 days. If your symptoms persist, treatment may be extended. An acyclovir ointment may also be prescribed for topical treatment of initial genital herpes.
Common Medications That Harm Your Kidneys
Though you may not think about your kidneys all too often, they do play a vital role in your health.
One of their major roles is as your bodys filtering and waste disposal system
Almost 7,000 ounces of blood cycles through the kidneys each day. And in their workings they produce urine from unwanted chemicals, excess fluid or waste.
Its common practice these days to take medications for our ailments. And while medications may be designed to assist your body in some way, they also have to take a trip to the kidneys for filtering.
And if you think your kidneys are safe from the effects of those drugs, think again around 20 percent of acute kidney failure is caused by prescription medications.
Thats why you should know about six common medications that can damage the kidneys more than others
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Why Stis Are Called Silent Infections
Info: 2558 words Nursing Essay 11th Feb 2020
In the following paragraphs I will be discussing why sexually transmitted diseases are called silent infections. I will also be discussing the topic of urinalysis and its components and how these components may reveal if the body is functioning normally or abnormally. . The information pertaining to these subjects relates to the knowledge I have gained through my readings of The Human Body in Health & Disease, as well as personal knowledge and opinion.
Explain why sexually transmitted diseases are often called silent infections, and discuss why this is especially true for women.
If you need assistance with writing your nursing essay, our professional nursing essay writing service is here to help!
Describe the different components of a urinalysis and discuss what each may reveal about the normal or abnormal functioning of the body. Give specific examples
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What Is A Kidney Infection
Also known as Pyelonephritis, a kidney infection is a type of upper urinary tract infection that usually begins in the urethra or bladder. Letter on, it tends to travel upward to involve one or both of your kidneys. It requires prompt diagnosis and treatment, as if not treated properly, can permanently damage your kidneys. If left untreated, the infection may spread into your blood and leads to a life-threatening condition called septicemia.
Upper urinary tract infections usually develop when bacteria or other pathogens invade your urethra, bladder or ureters. In normal circumstances, the flow of urine is from your kidneys towards your bladder. This download flow flushes out metabolic byproducts and any bacteria that may be present in it, thus preventing the chance of infection. However, when your kidneys become infected, there is a disruption in the urinary flow or even the urine may flow in the backward direction.
The incidence of kidney infection is increasing around the globe due to multiple dietary and environmental factors. A person with infected kidneys can experience and a number of symptoms that occur around the area of infection or affect the whole body. At first, you may have symptoms related to the lower urinary tract infections before it spreads to your Kidneys. The most common signs and symptoms of kidney infections include
Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
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Symptoms Of Utis And Herpes
In many cases, the symptoms experienced by a patient with genital herpes resemble those of a UTI at first, which can lead to the mistaken conclusion that herpes has caused the UTI. Rather, the initial symptoms that tend to occur one or two days before the sores of an outbreak appear may mimic those of a UTI. These include:
- A burning sensation when urinating
- Painful urination
- Frequent and urgent need to urinate, as well as difficulty urinating
However, as the symptoms progress, patients with genital herpes also experience:
- Numbness nad tingling or even burning in the genital area
- Watery blisters in and around the genitals
- Tenderness and sores near the rectum
These additional sores, once burst, can take up to four weeks to heal. Throughout this time, hygiene is of the utmost importance to assure that bacteria dont settle into these sores or transfer bacteria from them to the urethra.
Characteristics Of The Study Cohort
For the 3-year study period, there were 446 465 incident dialysis patients. After applying the exclusion criteria, the sample consisted of 221 546 individuals. From this group, 2784 patients had a zoster diagnosis and 51% died .
summarizes descriptive statistics by mortality status. Patients who died were older, white and non-Hispanic when compared with those who were alive at 2years. The time to death or follow-up was 8.1 and 16.7 months in nonsurvivors versus survivors, respectively .
Descriptive statistics for mortality within each risk factor and chi-square or t-test results among ESRD zoster patients
Zoster patients who died had a higher CCI and a greater incidence of bacteremia/septicemia, CDI and malnutrition. Patients with a history of kidney transplant had a significantly lower incidence of mortality. The most common primary causes of death were cardiac and unclassified other . A total of 27 patients received the zoster vaccination. Ten patients developed zoster and 17 did not .
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Herpes Can Spread Silently
In the early 1980s, HIV stole the spotlight from other sexually transmitted diseases, dominating the media with warnings to be virtuous because of the possibility of contracting AIDS. But while AIDS only affects about 0.6 percent of the US, its less celebrated relative, genital herpesotherwise known as herpes simplex virus type 2 is far more prevalent.1 In fact, 17 percent of all US adults are infected, and among certain sub-groups the rate is much higher: Unbelievably, for instance, single women of all races between the ages of 45 and 50 have a prevalence rate between 50 and 70 percent!2 Forty-eight percent of all African-American women, are infected.3 And perhaps even more striking than the fact that one in every six people has the disease is the fact that only a small percentage of those infected as few as 10 percentactually know it.
How can so many people infected with genital herpes not even recognize that theyre carrying the disease? For one thing, carriers of HSV-2 can remain asymptomatic for years. In fact, about 40 percent of those with HSV-2 dont manifest symptoms at all.5 Plus, when the symptoms of herpes do appear, they tend to be annoying and uncomfortable rather than catastrophic. The victim may get painful or itchy bumps and blisters in the genital area, lower-back pain, discharge, fever, muscle aches, or headaches, but the symptoms arent necessarily severe.