Monday, September 26, 2022

What Is Herpes Simplex Virus 2

When To See A Doctor

Herpes (oral & genital) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Because a person might not have symptoms even if they have herpes, it can be difficult to know when to see a doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

Planned Parenthood recommends that a person see a healthcare professional as soon as they notice sores on or around their genitals. Other STIs, such as syphilis, can have similar symptoms but require different treatment. The American Sexual Health Association also recommends seeing a doctor to get a culture of any lesion or cold sore a person notices.

People may wish to take an at-home STI test before seeing a doctor. However, at-home tests should not replace professional diagnosis and treatment.

  • applying aloe vera gel to sores
  • applying petroleum jelly to the affected areas
  • wearing loose clothing to avoid irritation
  • refraining from sexual activity, even with protection, until symptoms have gone
  • applying a cream or lotion to the urethra before urinating, such as one that contains lidocaine

Some people find that using ice packs help. However, never apply ice directly to the skin wrap it in a cloth first.

What Is Herpes Simplex

The herpes simplex virus, also known as HSV, is a viral infection that causes genital and oral herpes.

Many people live with asymptomatic HSV, which means they have the virus without ever having an outbreak or active episode of herpes.

Others might experience occasional episodes of small, fluid-filled blisters or sores. These blisters most commonly appear on the genitals or mouth and lips, but they can also show up on hands or fingers and other parts of your body.

HSV can be sexually transmitted, but the virus can also be transmitted in other ways. Theres a lot of stigma around herpes, but the virus is actually very common and nothing to be ashamed of.

According to estimates from the World Health Organization :

  • about 67 percent of the worlds population under age 50 had oral or genital HSV-1 in 2016
  • about 13 percent of people between the ages of 15 and 49 had HSV-2 in 2016

Other research notes that over 90 percent of adults have HSV-1 antibodies by the time they reach their 50s.

Experts have yet to find a cure for herpes, but antivirals and home remedies can help ease the severity of symptoms. Antiviral medication may also lead to fewer herpes episodes.

Read on to learn more about the difference between HSV-1 and HSV-2, plus get the details on key signs, diagnosis, and treatment.

First And Subsequent Episodes

The first genital herpes outbreak will generally be worse than the ones that follow. During a first outbreak, the appearance of lesions will often be accompanied by:

Subsequent attacks tend to be shorter and less severe. They are often preceded by genital pain or shooting pain in the legs, hip, or buttocks several hours or days before the attack.

Over time, the number of outbreaks tends to decrease and become less severe.

Read Also: Does Herpes Turn To Hiv

What Causes Herpes Meningitis

Herpes meningitis is a viral meningitis, which means that the meningitis is caused by a virus.

A person may develop herpes meningitis if theyve contracted a herpes virus, including:

The viruses that cause herpes meningitis enter the body through your skin, where they can travel through the central nervous system and potentially cause problems in other parts of the body, like the tissues surrounding the CNS.

Once a herpes virus is in your system, it’s possible to get herpes meningitis at any time. That’s because the virus stays in your body for life and goes through periods of inactivity and flare-ups .

Washing The Genital Area Before And After Sex Can Help Prevent The Transmission Of Genital Herpes

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 HSV

Washing the genital area doesnât help prevent any sexually transmitted disease , including genital herpes. The best way to prevent any STD is to abstain from sex or engage in sex only with someone you know is not infected. Condoms are not guaranteed to prevent infection, but research has shown that they provide some protection.

Don’t Miss: What Do You Do For Herpes

A Pregnant Woman Can Give Herpes To Their Unborn Baby

The estimated number of pregnant women infected with HSV-2 is 880,000. Most transmission to newborns occurs during vaginal delivery. If a woman had genital herpes before getting pregnant, their baby may be infected but the chance is very low — less than 1%. However, the risk of infecting the baby is much higher when a woman is newly infected late in pregnancy.

If you are pregnant and think you may be infected, tell your doctor right away. Women with genital herpes are examined carefully for any symptoms before giving birth. If sores or signs that an outbreak is coming are present at the time of delivery, the baby may be delivered by cesarean section .

How Common Is Genital Herpes

Genital herpes infection is common in the United States. CDC estimated that there were 572,000 new genital herpes infections in the United States in a single year.1 Nationwide, 11.9 % of persons aged 14 to 49 years have HSV-2 infection .2 However, the prevalence of genital herpes infection is higher than that because an increasing number of genital herpes infections are caused by HSV-1. 3 Oral HSV-1 infection is typically acquired in childhood because the prevalence of oral HSV-1 infection has declined in recent decades, people may have become more susceptible to contracting a genital herpes infection from HSV-1. 4

HSV-2 infection is more common among women than among men the percentages of those infected during 2015-2016 were 15.9% versus 8.2% respectively, among 14 to 49 year olds. 2 This is possibly because genital infection is more easily transmitted from men to women than from women to men during penile-vaginal sex. 5 HSV-2 infection is more common among non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites . 2 A previous analysis found that these disparities, exist even among persons with similar numbers of lifetime sexual partners. Most infected persons may be unaware of their infection in the United States, an estimated 87.4% of 14 to 49 year olds infected with HSV-2 have never received a clinical diagnosis. 6

The age-adjusted percentage of persons in the United States infected with HSV-2 decreased from 18.0% in 19992000 to 12.1% in 2015-2016. 2

Also Check: Can You Spread Herpes If Its Dormant

What Happens If Herpes Is Left Untreated

Without treatment, sores and outbreaks usually heal on their own. Oral herpes is usually considered a mild infection, but complications may appear in people with weakened immune systems.

The risk of complications with genital herpes is also low, though these include inflammation, swelling, and pain. Passing HSV-2 to a newborn can be dangerous, however. Doctors may recommend a cesarean delivery to mothers with genital herpes, according to the .

You May Like: Can You Have Sex With Herpes

Episodic Therapy For Recurrences

Herpes Simplex Virus

For a recurrent episode, treatment takes 1 to 5 days, depending on the type of medication and dosage. You should begin the medication as soon as you notice any signs or symptoms of herpes, preferably during the prodrome stage that precedes the outbreak of lesions.

In order for episodic therapy to be effective, it must be taken no later than 1 day after a lesion appears. If taken during prodrome, episodic therapy may help prevent an outbreak from occurring or reduce its severity. If taken at the first sign of a lesion, it can help speed healing.

You May Like: What Causes Genital Herpes Outbreaks

When Do You Need A Herpes Antibodies Test

Herpes antibodies tests are not recommended when your doctor wants to diagnose an active infection. The best tests, in this case, are to collect a sample from you and attempt to culture the virus or test for the presence of its genome using a technique called polymerase chain reaction .

Should an active infection be detected with a PCR test, your doctor may prescribe antiviral medications to help prevent outbreaks or shorten their severity. When outbreaks occur when you are on these medications, theyâre typically shorter and create fewer lesions than when you arenât taking them.

Common antiviral medications include acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir.

Your doctor may recommend an antibody test in addition to these other tests for an active infection. But it is more likely that they will recommend this test for another reason, including if:

  • You have recurring symptoms but active test results are negative.
  • You believe you were recently exposed but donât yet have symptoms.
  • Youâre pregnant or trying to become pregnant.
  • You have HIV or have a high risk of encountering HIV.

Traditional Medicine And Herpes Simplex 2

Traditional medicine usually recommends two types of remedies for herpes. One is antibiotics and the other is topical creams. There are gels and lotions but essentially they are creams applied topically, which is on the skin.

The antibiotics and creams recommended or prescribed by doctors are usually Acyclovir oral, Zovirax oral, Zovirax topical, Valtrex oral, Valacyclovir oral, Xerese topical, Acyclovir topical or Acyclovir-Hydrocortisone topical, Acyclovir Sodium intravenous, Zovirax topical, Acyclovir topical, Xerese topical and Acyclovir-Hydrocortisone topical. The topical remedies are the creams. The intravenous remedy is administered as an injection. The oral remedies are pills or tablets that must be ingested.

Antibiotics fail to have any impact on herpes simplex 2 because they are meant to fight bacteria.

Antibiotics are remedies for bacterial infections. Hence, it is almost futile to even expect any relief from herpes simplex 2 or any impact on the infection with antibiotics. The same is true for antibiotic creams. The essential components of the creams or the ingredients do not change. The composition remains effective only on bacteria, that too a certain type of bacteria. Not only is herpes simplex 2 a virus but it is a particular strain of virus. There are many viruses in the same family and they all cannot have the same cure or treatment for herpes. This is why there are vaccines for specific viruses that humans have been immunized against.

Also Check: Do Herpes Outbreaks Occur In The Same Spot

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

HSV-2 is a double-stranded DNA virus that is universal in human populations. HSV-2 is usually transmitted sexually, with antiviral antibodies first appearing in adolescence or early adult life. Following acute infection, the virus persists predominantly in spinal sensory ganglia and is subject to periodic reactivation, often without cutaneous or mucosal signs of infection.20 HSV-2 accounts for up to 10 to 20 percent of isolates in adults with viral meningitis and is roughly twice as common among women.20,21 HSV-2 as a cause of viral meningitis should be considered particularly in young, sexually active adults.21 Older data suggested that up to 36 percent of women and 11 percent of men had headache, fever, or nuchal rigidity at the time of their first attack of genital herpes.21,22 Some patients with HSV-2 meningitis following genital herpes may have focal lumbosacral symptoms including urinary retention suggesting nerve root infection, and the virus may also be associated with myelitis.20,21 HSV-2 DNA can frequently be detected in CSF by amplification using the polymerase chain reaction .21 Approximately 20 percent of individuals with acute HSV-2 meningitis may subsequently develop recurrent episodes of meningitis .21 Many individuals with recurrent meningitis have no history of genital herpes and lack genital lesions during attacks of meningitis.

A. Cliffe, … D.M. Knipe, in, 2014

Can I Treat Herpes Simplex At Home

Herpes simplex virus 2 gD antibody

Avoiding known triggers, such as illness or stress, can help reduce how often you have herpes outbreaks.

How can I ease my symptoms during an outbreak of HSV-1 ?

  • Over-the-counter creams such as L-lysine, benzocaine or docosanol .
  • Applying ice to blisters or sores.

How can I ease my symptoms during an outbreak of HSV-2 ?

  • Apply an ice pack to your genitals. Wrap the ice pack in a washcloth or apply it over your underwear.
  • Keep your genitals dry. Wear cotton or other nonsynthetic underpants and avoid tight-fitting clothes. Moist sores take longer to heal.
  • Soak in a warm bath.
  • Take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve pain.
  • Topical 1% or 2% lidocaine may be used as a topical analgesic.

Also Check: How To Test For Herpes Without An Outbreak

How Can I Reduce My Risk Of Herpes Simplex

Preventing HSV-1

You can reduce your risk of contracting HSV-1 by avoiding physical contact with someone who has a cold sore. People can still spread HSV-1 when cold sores arent present, but its less likely.

If someone has an active HSV-1 infection, avoid:

  • Sharing utensils, cups, lip balms or other personal care products.
  • Touching the skin near their mouth.

Preventing HSV-2

If youre sexually active, you can take these steps to protect yourself and others from the herpes virus and other STIs:

  • Be monogamous with one sexual partner or limit your number of partners.
  • Get tested for STIs and complete any prescribed treatment.
  • Tell your sexual partners if you have genital herpes so they can get tested.
  • Use condoms during intercourse and dental dams during oral sex.

Wash your hands often if you have an outbreak or are around someone with symptoms.

If your sexual partner has genital herpes, these actions can lower your risk of getting the virus:

  • Dont have sex when your partner has active symptoms. Condoms may not cover all sores, so you may still get the virus.
  • Make sure your partner takes antiviral medication as prescribed.
  • Wait to have sex until scabs fall off active lesions.

Treatment Vs Preventative Vaccines

The biggest difference between treatment and preventative vaccines is which groups of people they would benefit. Treatment vaccines are intended for people who have been infected with HSV, boosting the immune system to fight the virus. They would help improve symptoms, help blisters heal faster, and lower the risk of spreading the virus to other people.

The second type of vaccine a preventative vaccine is the most common type of vaccine we get as children and adults, helping to train our immune system against a germ before we encounter it. In other words, a preventative HSV vaccine would prevent you from being infected with HSV. The and the are examples of preventative herpes vaccines currently available, but they will not prevent HSV-1 and HSV-2.

Recommended Reading: How Does Herpes Get Tested

What Is Herpes Simplex Virus

HSV is a virus that can cause painful ulcers in your mouth or on your genitals. There are two main herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 infections most commonly affect your mouth, but they may also result in sores on your genitals. HSV-2, on the other hand, primarily affects your genitals. In the U.S., over 50% of adults have HSV-1, and 15% of sexually active people have HSV-2.

Once youve been infected with HSV, the virus stays in your body long term, causing sores or blisters to appear periodically . In rare cases, it can cause life-threatening infections like meningitis and encephalitis.

When you think of herpesviruses, HSV is likely what comes to mind. But both types of HSV are actually part of a larger family of herpesviruses, including:

What Are The Symptoms Of Genital Herpes

HSV 1 and 2 – Pathogenesis of Oral and Genital Herpes

Most individuals infected with HSV are asymptomatic or have very mild symptoms that go unnoticed or are mistaken for another skin condition. 9 When symptoms do occur, herpes lesions typically appear as one or more vesicles, or small blisters, on or around the genitals, rectum or mouth. The average incubation period for an initial herpes infection is 4 days after exposure. 10 The vesicles break and leave painful ulcers that may take two to four weeks to heal after the initial herpes infection. 5,10 Experiencing these symptoms is referred to as having a first herpes outbreak or episode.

Also Check: Do Herpes Outbreaks Happen In The Same Spot

Recommended Reading: Dr Sebis Cure For Herpes

What Is The Herpes Simplex Virus

The herpes simplex virus is a type of virus that causes infections in humans. Approximately 3.7 billion people under the age of fifty â or 67% â have been infected with HSV-1 in their lifetimes. There are about 491 million cases of HSV-2 worldwide â or 13% of the global population between the ages of 15 and 49.

HSV is spread through direct contact with the virus. This can happen during sex or while giving birth.

The virus leads to an increased risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus . It can also cause you to develop more severe conditions if you have a compromised immune system.

HSV can have particularly problematic results if youâre infected with the virus when youâre born. The chance of passing it on while pregnant is low but â if it happens â it can lead to disabilities and death.

Thereâs also a social stigma associated with this virus that can be damaging to your mental health if you ever become infected.

Do Symptoms Differ Depending On Location

Youll most likely notice similar blisters and prodromal symptoms, no matter what type of the virus you have or where it shows up. The two different types of HSV .

The only major difference, of course, is where you experience symptoms:

  • If HSV affects your genitals, you might notice pain or burning during urination.
  • If HSV affects your mouth, you might have difficulty eating spicy or acidic foods while you have open sores.

Theres also a slight difference in where oral blisters appear, depending on whether theyre primary or recurrent. During the first episode, blisters may appear on your mouth and lips, but during later episodes, theyre more likely to

Also Check: How Can You Not Spread Herpes

Popular Articles
Related news